家目錄(Home directories)

使用者的個人檔案通常都會在/home(一般使用者)或是/root(超級使用者),你的家目錄位於/home/<your-username> (/home/mt, /home/john, etc.)。以下為幾種查看家目錄的方法:



⤍ echo $HOME

⤍ echo ~

⤍ echo ~/Documents


⤍ cd ~john

⤍ pwd

系統目錄(System directories)




/usr/local/  share/  emacs
 ---------   -----   -----
   Scope   Category   App


/           System files supplied with Linux.

/usr        More system files supplied with Linux.

/usr/local  System files developed "locally," either your organization or your individual computer.

/usr/games  Games.


bin          Programs (usually binary files).

sbin         Programs (usually binary files) intended to be run by the superuser.

lib          Libraries of code used by programs.

doc          Documentation.

info         Documentation files for emacs's built-in help system.

man          Documentation files (manual pages) displayed by the man program; the files are often compressed and are sprinkled with typesetting commands for man to interpret.

share        Program-specific files, such as examples and installation instructions.

etc          Configuration files for the system (and other miscellaneous stuff).

init.d       Configuration files for booting Linux.

rc.d         Configuration files for booting Linux; also rc1.d, rc2.d, ...

include      Header files for programming.

src          Source code for programs.

cgi-bin      Scripts/programs that run on web pages.

html         Web pages.

public_html  Web pages, typically in users' home directories.

www          Web pages.

fonts        Fonts.

X11          X window system files.

dev          Device files for interfacing with disks and other hardware.

media        Mount points: directories that provide access to disks.

mnt          Mount points: directories that provide access to disks.

var          File specific to this computer, created and updated as the computer runs.

lock         Lock files, created by programs to say, "I am running"; the existence of a lock file may prevent another program, or another instance of the same program, from running or performing an action.

log          Log files that track important system events, containing error, warning, and informational messages.

mail         Mailboxes for incoming mail.

run          PID files, which contain the IDs of running processes; these files are often consulted to track or kill particular processes.

spool        Files queued or in transit, such as outgoing email, print jobs, and scheduled jobs.

tmp          Temporary storage for programs and/or people to use.

proc         Operating system state.

檔案權限(File permissions)



⤍ ls -l file
-rw-r--r--  1  mt  eecsmt  2048  Oct  18  2020  file


⤍ ls -ld dir
drwxr-x---  2  mt  eecsmt  4096  Mar  20  2019  dir




Position  Meaning

   1      File type: - = file, d = directory, l = symbolic link, p = named pipe, c = character device, b = block device.

  2-4     Read, write, and execute permissions for the file's owner.

  5-7     Read, write, and execute permissions for the file's group.

  8-10    Read, write, and execute permissions for all other users.